Published Date: 2017-03-31 15:44:23
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Algeria (02): (RE) bovine, st A, new strain, OIE
Archive Number: 20170331.4939480
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE - ALGERIA (02): (RELIZANE), BOVINE, SEROTYPE A, NEW STRAIN, OIE
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Date: Fri 31 Mar 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2017; 30(14) [edited]
Foot-and-mouth disease, Algeria
Information received on [and dated] 31 Mar 2017 from Dr Ahmed Chawky Karim Boughalem, [Director of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development], Alger, Algeria
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 24 Mar 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 28 Mar 2017
Reason for notification: new strain of a listed disease in the country
Causal agent: foot-and-mouth disease virus
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.
New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Ouled Souid, Zemmoura, Relizane
Date of start of the outbreak: 24 Mar 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: farm
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 12 / 7 / 0 / 0 / 12
Affected population: farm with 12 bovines (11 fattening young bulls and a cow). Clinical signs in some of the animals: fever, lameness, stomatitis, lingual lesions and salivation.
Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle / 58.33 / 0 / 0 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction, and/or slaughter
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments: Prospection launching of the national vaccination campaign against serotype O of foot-and-mouth disease because of its presence in the region. Measures are being taken to face the occurrence of this new serotype (A) in the country (vaccines not available yet).
Measures applied: disinfection / disinfestation, no treatment of affected animals
Vaccination in response to the outbreak(s):
Administrative division / Species / Total vaccinated / Details
Relizane / Cattle / 2500 / Monovalent O (launched before serotyping)
Measures to be applied: no other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type/ Species / Test / Test date / Result
Central Veterinary Laboratory (National laboratory) / Cattle / [not available] / 28 Mar 2017 / Positive
Central Veterinary Laboratory (national laboratory) / Cattle / real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) / 28 Mar 2017 / Positive
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]
[The introduction of FMDV-A into Algeria is concerning for the country and its neighbors, since the relevant animal populations are considered to be fully susceptible. The recent vaccinations in Maghreb countries, including Algeria, targeted FMDV-O. According to the WRLFMD Algeria web-page, FMDV-A was last reported there in 1977 (see http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/africa/alg.htm).
Algeria belongs to FMD "Pool 3" (West Eurasia & Middle East), while bordering also countries belonging to "Pool 5" (West-Central Africa). Strains invading Algeria are generally expected to originate in one of those 2 pools.
A map showing the FMD pools is available on page 5 of the most recent FAO/EU/EUFMD's global monthly situation report, February 2017 (published [31 Mar 2017] and available at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/eufmd/docs/FMD_monthly_reports/2017/Feb2017.pdf). The said report presents the following conjectured circulating FMDV serotype A lineages in pools 3 and 5.
Pool 3 (West Eurasia & Middle East):
A/ASIA/Iran-05 (from AFG-07, HER 10, SIS-10/12, SIS-, FAR-09/11 and BAR-08 sub-lineages)
A/Asia/G-VII (recent incursion from South Asia)
A/AFRICA/G-IV (detected also in Iran in 2016)
Asia-1 (Sindh-08 lineage).
Noteworthy, 2 North-African countries, Libya and Egypt, are considered to belong to 2 pools, namely Pool 3 and Pool 4 (Eastern Africa). A total of 2 FMDV-A lineages have recently been reported from countries of pool 4, namely A/AFRICA/G-VII (Ethiopia) and A/AFRICA/G-1 (Kenya).
Genotyping of the new strain in Algeria is in urgent need for the choice of the most appropriate vaccine strain. - Mod.AS
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/19750.]