Published Date: 2017-04-28 21:16:24
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Tunisia: (BZ) bovine, serotype A, OIE
Archive Number: 20170428.5002447
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE - TUNISIA: (BIZERTE) BOVINE, SEROTYPE A, OIE
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Fri 28 Apr 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2017; 30(18) [edited] http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=23651
Foot-and-mouth disease, Tunisia
Information received on [and dated] 28 Apr 2017 from Dr Malek Zrelli, Directeur General, Direction Generale des Services Veterinaires, Ministere de l'Agriculture, Tunis, Tunisia
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 24 Apr 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 27 Apr 2017
Reason for notification: Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 4 Nov 2014
Causal agent: Foot-and-mouth disease virus
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.
New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Bizerte, ached, Bizerte sud, Bizerte
Date of start of the outbreak: 24 Apr 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: farm
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 22 / 17 / 0 / 0 / 22
Affected population: Unit made of 22 bovines (21 young bulls and a cow) which belong to a butcher. Clinical signs observed on the animals were: fever, lameness, stomatitis, ulcers of all ages and salivation.
Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle / 77.27 / 0 / 0 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction, and/or slaughter
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: Introduction of new live animals, illegal movement of animals
Epidemiological comments: Other control measures were applied, such as: - Activation of national and regional crisis units, - By-law declaring the infection, - Perifocal vaccination, A trivalent vaccine is available; its valences are the serotypes A, O and SAT1, and its potency is superior to 6 PD50. The anti-foot-and-mouth vaccination campaign has been running since February 2017. Five vaccination campaigns have been applied since 2014. The last vaccination campaign finalized in [Nov 2016]. On [Mon 24 Apr 2017], 4 bovines (one Montbeliarde and 3 cross-breed) of unknown origin and bearing foreign identification marks were introduced. Lately, illegal cross-border animal movements were registered.
Measures applied: disinfection / disinfestation, stamping out, vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists), no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: Vaccination in response to the outbreak(s)
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type/ Species / Test / Test date / Result
Veterinary research institute of Tunisia (National laboratory) / Cattle / real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) / 27 Apr 2017 / Positive
Veterinary research institute of Tunisia (National laboratory) / Cattle / typing ELISA / 27 Apr 2017 / Positive
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]
[The virus strain identified in Tunisia is likely to be closely related or identical to the one which has been circulating in Algeria since late March 2017. This strain has been serotyped A and genotyped as topotype Africa, lineage G-IV, closely related to Nigerian strains collected in 2013 and 2015.
Subscribers are referred to Ref 1, published cooperatively by Nigerian and Belgian authors. This paper is a result of the OIE Laboratory Twinning project between CODA-CERVA (Ukkel, Belgium) and NVRI (Vom, Nigeria), as part of a capacity-building programme. Three FMDV serotypes - O, A and SAT2 - were isolated and characterized. The phylogenetic assessments of the virus isolates showed that 2 topotypes of FMDV serotype O, namely East Africa-3 (EA-3) and West Africa (WA) topotypes, were circulating, as well as FMDV strains belonging to the Africa genotype (G-IV) of serotype A and FMDV SAT2 topotype VII strains.
The Nigerian FMDV-A, G-IV strains were found closely related to a strain collected in Cameroon in 2000. Nigeria's FMD situation was linked to its status as the largest importer of livestock in Africa, with over 1.4 million animals imported in 2010; including 1 million live cattle, sheep and goats from Niger (this figure did not include the illegal live animal trade). Vaccination of susceptible livestock against FMD is not practiced in Nigeria due to the prohibitive cost of foreign vaccines and the absence of locally produced FMD vaccines. The obtained information helps to fill the knowledge gap on FMDV dynamics in Nigeria and the West Africa FMD virus pool that could support local and regional development of vaccination-based control plans and international risk assessment.
The current spread of a West-African strain into the Maghreb, threatening Europe, underlines the importance of the Nigerian project. Vaccine matching tests are urgently needed.
1. D. O. Ehizibolo, A. Haegeman, A. R. De Vleeschauwer, J. U. Umoh, H. M. Kazeem, E. C. Okolocha, S. Van Borm & K. De Clercq. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Foot and Mouth Disease Viruses from Outbreaks in Some States of Northern Nigeria 2013-2015. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2017 Jan 17. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12602/abstract;jsessionid=C74D9B0188A4CD2A8C6254DB106A3A7C.f04t04. - Mod.AS
A map of the current situation of FMD in this area can be seen at http://tinyurl.com/m683m3v (click on the section of interest on the map and zoom in). - Mod.CRD
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/22333.]