Published Date: 2017-08-24 12:46:46
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Nepal: (CH) bovine, new, st A, gt VII, OIE
Archive Number: 20170824.5271563
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - NEPAL: (CHITWAN) BOVINE, NEW STRAIN, SEROTYPE A, GENOTYPE VII, OIE
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Wed 23 Aug 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2017; 30(34) [edited] http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=24622
Foot and mouth disease, Nepal
Information received on 23 Aug 2017 from Dr Bimal Kumar Nirmal, Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Livestock Development, Nepal
Report type: immediate notification (final report)
Date of start of the event: 2 Apr 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 6 Apr 2017
Report date: 22 Aug 2017
Date event resolved: 3 May 2017
Reason for notification: new strain of a listed disease in the country
Causal agent: foot and mouth disease virus (lineage G-VII)
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (basic and advanced)
This event pertains to the whole country.
New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Chitwan, Bharatpur 4, Chitwan, Narayani [Province Three]
Date of start of the outbreak: 2 Apr 2017
Outbreak status: resolved on 3 May 2017
Epidemiological unit: village
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of / Slaughtered
Cattle / 17 / 17 / 0 / 0 / 0
Buffaloes / 3 / 3 / 0 / 0 / 0
Affected population: cattle and buffaloes reared in semi commercial small holder farms of Bharatpur 4, Chitwan were affected.
Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle / 100 / 0 / 0 / 0
Buffaloes / 100 / 0 / 0 / 0
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction, and/or slaughter
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive, Illegal movement of animals
Epidemiological comments: 15 per cent of young (1-1.5 years old) and 85 per cent of adult (3-5 years old) cross breed cattle and buffaloes of 4 farms were affected with typical signs and symptoms of foot and mouth disease (FMD) such as high fever, drooling of saliva, champing of jaws, lameness, off feed, lesions on tongue. All the cattle and buffaloes in the village were affected; however there was no mortality observed even in the young ones. The animals have not been vaccinated against FMD since few years in these farms. There was a buffalo collection and selling center 100 meters close to the village. There was a collection of buffaloes from different neighboring districts and international bordering districts. Further investigation is ongoing.
Measures applied: movement control inside the country, surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone, surveillance within containment and/or protection zone, quarantine, disinfection, vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists), no treatment of affected animals
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
National foot-and-mouth disease and transboundary animal diseases Laboratory, Kathmandu (national laboratory) / Buffaloes / polymerase chain reaction (PCR) / 6 Apr 2017 / Positive
National foot-and-mouth disease and transboundary animal diseases Laboratory, Kathmandu (national laboratory) / Cattle / PCR / 6 Apr 2017 / Positive
National foot-and-mouth disease and transboundary animal diseases Laboratory, Kathmandu (national laboratory) / Cattle / serotyping / 6 Apr 2017 / Positive
Pirbright Institute, United Kingdom (OIE reference laboratory) / Cattle / gene sequencing / 14 Aug 2017 / Positive
Pirbright Institute, United Kingdom (OIE reference laboratory) / Cattle / serotyping / 14 Aug 2017 / Positive
Measures to be applied: no other measures
The event is resolved. No more reports will be submitted.
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]
[According to the Nepal page on WRLFMD website, the last occurrence of FMD serotype A in Nepal took place in 1997. Since 2010, and as of March 2017, the FMDV strain circulating in Nepal has continuously been O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d (in 2015, there was also a single detection of O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2 KAT-15). For the said and additional information on Nepal's FMD past records, including genotyping results (though not yet of the newly introduced A/ASIA/G-VII lineage), see http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/asia/nep.htm.
The identification of the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage in Nepal represents further spread of this virus, which had been evolving in India many years back ("A/IND/40/2000", genotyped A/ASIA/G-VII, was collected in 1999). In 2010, this strain was detected in Myanmar. In 2015, it appeared for the 1st time in the Middle East ("FMD Pool 3"), being detected in Saudi Arabia followed, during the same year, by Iran, Turkey and Armenia. Most recently (May 2017), this virus was identified in Northern Israel, on the Lebanese and Syrian borders.
According to the information included in the Guest Editor's comments to EuFMD's (European Commission for the control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease) monthly report "Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Situation", June 2017, there were reports of poor performance of vaccine strains derived from the A/ASIA/Iran-05 strain against the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage. The guest editor, Don King (head of the Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory Group in the Pirbright Institute and WRLFMD), disclosed that WRLFMD, in partnership with the FMD Reference Laboratories in Lelystad (The Netherlands) and Geelong (Australia), has undertaken vaccine potency trials for alternative candidate vaccines; preliminary data indicated that the A-May-97 vaccine may provide protection in cattle, in contrast to the A22 vaccine, which does not appear to induce a protective response. The said data were to "be presented in more detail shortly". The said and additional information is available at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/eufmd/docs/FMD_monthly_reports/2017/June2017.pdf.
The Indian subcontinent ("FMD Pool 2") is the source of 2 FMD strains which have demonstrated, in recent years, a long-distance (trans-regional) transmission, causing losses in "FMD Pool 3" countries and threatening Europe. These are FMDV serotype O, topotype ME-SA, strain Ind-2001d and FMDV serotype A, topotype Asia, genotype (strain) VII. While the routes of dissemination are yet to be clarified, the FMD situation within India, a major beef exporter, including its vaccination policy and vaccines efficacy, deserves being visited. - Mod.AS
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/19830.]