Published Date: 2017-09-22 14:16:57
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Bhutan: (SJ) bovine, new, st A, gt VII, OIE
Archive Number: 20170922.5334172
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - BHUTAN: (SAMDRUP JONGKHAR) BOVINE, NEW, SEROTYPE A, GENOTYPE VII, OIE
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Date: Sat 16 Sep 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2017; 30(38) [edited] http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=24802
Foot-and-mouth disease, Bhutan
Information received on [and submitted] 16 Sep 2017 from Dr Tashi Samdup, Director General, Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests, Thimphu, Bhutan
OIE Alert Summary
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 31 Mar 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 4 Sep 2017
Report date: 19 Sep 2017
Reason for notification: new strain of a listed disease in the country
Causal agent: Foot and mouth disease virus (lineage G-VII)
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.
New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Quarantine Station, Samdrup Jongkhar
Date of start of the outbreak: 31 Mar 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: not applicable
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Killed and disposed of / Slaughtered
Cattle / 42 / 11 / 11 / - / -
Affected population: 21 milk cattle and 21 calves were imported into the country for breeding.
Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle / 26.19 / 26.19 / 100 / **
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction, and/or slaughter
** Not calculated because of missing information
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: legal movement of animals, animals in transit
Epidemiological comments: the animals were given a supportive antibiotic treatment and released after fulfillment of the quarantine period and when they had clinically recovered from the infection as per national regulations.
Measures applied: movement control inside the country, screening, quarantine, disinfection, vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists), no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
The Pirbright Institute, (OIE reference laboratory) / Cattle / serotyping / 4 Sep 2017 / Positive
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]
[This outbreak was recorded in March 2017 in a quarantine station in Samdrup Jongkhar, a town located at the south-eastern part of Bhutan, bordering the Indian state of Assam. It involved a consignment of 42 dairy cattle imported for breeding purposes from an undisclosed country, of which 11 reportedly died (in the quarantine station?). The remaining (31) were released when clinically recovered.
The current OIE report, 6 months later, follows the sequencing of material (BTy1) received at the world reference lab WRLFMD, Pirbright, UK on 23 Aug 2017. The sample was collected from the affected cattle in Samdrup Jongkhar on 1 Apr 2017. The material was genotyped at Pirbright as serotype A, topotype Asia, lineage G-VII. It was found to be 100 percent identical to 2 samples from cattle in Nepal (virus names NEP/12/2017 and NEP/13/2017), which were collected from cattle in Chitwan district, Nepal on 6 Apr 2017 and received at Pirbright on 7 Aug 2017. Chitwan is located in south-center Nepal, more than 500 miles from Bhutan's western borders (Nepal and Bhutan are separated by India's Sikkim; map at http://tinyurl.com/ydxbwxqt).
The genotyping results from Bhutan, including a dendrogram, are available at http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/2017/WRLFMD-2017-00019-Bhutan-A-approved.pdf.
The outbreak in Chitwan, Nepal, including genotyping results, was reported to the OIE on 23 Aug 2017 (see 20170824.5271563, with additional background information in the commentary).
A possible contact between the sampled cattle from Nepal and Bhutan remains to be confirmed or otherwise.
The cattle imported to Bhutan in March 2017 could have been infected in the (unspecified) country of origin, or during transportation, or after arrival in Bhutan. FMDV A was, according to WRLFMD data, not reported from Bhutan since 2003.
The identification of the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage in Bhutan represents further spread of this virus, which had been evolving in India many years back ("A/IND/40/2000", genotyped A/ASIA/G-VII, was collected in 1999). In 2010, this strain was detected in Myanmar. In 2015, it appeared for the 1st time in the Middle East ("FMD Pool 3"), being detected in Saudi Arabia followed, during the same year, by Iran, Turkey, and Armenia. In April 2017, it was reportedly present in Nepal and in May in Northern Israel, on the Lebanese and Syrian borders. According to WRLFMD data, the following vaccine strains did not match this strain (from Iran): Iran 2005A, TUR 20/06A, Tur11 VVA. Tur14 VV, A22IRQ. - Mod.AS
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/10702.]