Published Date: 2018-05-28 11:43:28
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Uganda: (KS) st. SAT-3, bovine, wildlife
Archive Number: 20180528.5823131
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE - UGANDA: (KASESE) SEROTYPE SAT-3, BOVINE, WILDLIFE
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
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Date: Fri 25 May 2018
Source: New Vision [summarized, edited]
Scientists at the National Agricultural Research Organization have identified a new strain of foot and mouth disease [FMD] virus: a Southern African Territory 3 (SAT 3), which attacks livestock causing lesions in mouth and sore feet and subsequently inhibiting the animals' abilities to eat or move.
The SAT 3 was discovered in a seemingly healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffaloes in western Uganda.
"This calls for heightened surveillance to control spread, because we don't have any vaccine against the particular strain," Dr. Moses Dhikusooka, who led the team of researchers, said.
There are 7 known [serotypes] of the FMD virus. Serotypes O and A are widely distributed, and the SAT 1, 2, and 3, usually restricted to Africa. Then there is serotype Asia 1 and serotype C, which has not been identified anywhere since 2005.
Serotypes O and SAT 2 are the commonest in Uganda.
The researchers wanted to find out whether the country harbored other strains of the FMD virus, so they introduced 20 [6-month old] long-horned Ankole cattle into Nyakatonzi farm, in Kasese District, in close proximity to Queen Elizabeth National Park, which has [African] buffalos.
The cattle were picked from a vicinity where FMD outbreaks had not been reported for 10 years. They had no circulating antibodies against the foot and mouth virus.
The cattle freely mixed and grazed with buffaloes. After 2 weeks, FMD virus RNA (ribonucleic acid), was detected in the "probang" sample from one animal. Antibodies against the FMD virus had developed in one animal.
"The scientists also detected high-titer antibodies against both FMD virus SAT 1 and SAT 3 antigens using solid-phase laboratory techniques for detecting proteins," Dr. Dhikusooka said in the recent research.
The emergent virus strain (SAT 3) is 20 percent different (in nucleotide sequence) from its closest relatives (serotype O and SAT 2), which were isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.
Foot and mouth disease remains one of the most economically hazardous diseases of livestock in Uganda, costing the country millions of shillings. The infection is prevalent in more than 30 districts in Uganda.
An outbreak was reported in 4 districts in the Bugisu region last year , which prompted a ban on the movement of livestock and animal products from the affected sub-counties to stop the spread.
FMD is an infectious viral disease that attacks hoofed domestic and wild animals. It can be spread by infected animals and their products and feed.
[Byline: John Agaba]
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
[For information on the (long-horned) Ankole cattle breed, see http://fortuneofafrica.com/ug/ankole-long-horn-cattle/.
According to WRLFMD's Uganda page, FMDV-SAT 3 was identified in Uganda in 1970, 1997 (both only in African buffalo), and in 2013 (sub-clinical in cattle).
The 1997 strain's genotyping results are available at http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/2009/WRLFMD-2009-00048-Uganda-SAT3.pdf.
The 2013 strain's genotyping results are available at http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/2015/WRLMEG-2015-00001%20SAT3%20Uganda%202013.pdf.
All 3 SAT types (1,2,3) are probably endemic in the African buffalo [Syncerus caffer] population. - Mod.AS
Kasese District, Uganda: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/1557]