Published Date: 2018-06-30 16:33:04
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Algeria (08): (TO) bovine, st O, OIE
Archive Number: 20180630.5883015
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE - ALGERIA (08): (TIZI OUZOU) BOVINE, SEROTYPE O, OIE
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Date: Thu 28 Jun 2018
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2018; 31(26) [edited] http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=27085
Foot-and-mouth disease, Algeria
Information received on [and dated] on 28 Jun 2018 from Dr Hachimi Karim Kaddour, Directeur des Services Veterinaires (CVO), Direction des Services Veterinaires, Ministere de l'Agriculture, du Developpement Rural et de la Peche, Alger, Algeria
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 20 Jun 2018
Date of confirmation of the event: 22 Jun 2018
Reason for notification: Recurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 3 May 2015
Manifestation of disease: Clinical disease
Causal agent: foot-and-mouth disease virus
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.
New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Ouled Mekla, Mekla, Mekla, Tizi Ouzou
Date of start of the outbreak: 20 Jun 2018
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: farm
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 13 / 12 / 0 / 13 / 0
Affected population: Cattle showed the following clinical signs: fever, stomatitis, salivation, lesions of the tongue, lameness and cutaneous lesions of the mouth, udders, and in the inter digital spaces.
Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle / 92.31 / 0 / 0 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction, and/or slaughter
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive
Measures applied: surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone, official destruction of animal products, official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste, disinfection, vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists), no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: movement control inside the country
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type/ Species / Test / Test date / Result
Central Veterinary Laboratory (National laboratory) / Cattle / real-time PCR / 22 Jun 2018 / Positive
Central Veterinary Laboratory (national laboratory) / Cattle / typing ELISA / 26 Jun 2018 / Positive
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]
[A total of 12 FMD outbreaks caused by serotype O, involving mixed species (sheep, goat and bovine) farms, were reported between March and April 2015 in Algeria's provinces El Bayadh (9), El Oued (1), Sidi Bel Abbes (1) and Siada (1). The event was resolved on 3 May 2015. See event summary and updated map at http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review/viewsummary?fupser=&dothis=&reportid=17331.
In fact, the 2015 event was regarded as a continuation of a major FMD epizootic which had started in the Maghreb in April 2014, initially reported from Tunisia, later (July) from Algeria where 419 outbreaks were reported until end September (spread throughout all the country's northern provinces between Tunisia and Morocco), and finally, in October 2014, spreading to Morocco. The causative serotype O FMD strain was genotyped as topotype ME-SA, lineage 2001d.
Algeria has suffered later also an epizootic caused by FMD serotype A, genotyped topotype Africa, lineage G-IV. This took place between March and June 2017, affecting cattle, goats and sheep. During this event, 108 outbreaks were reported. A final report was submitted to the OIE on [Mon 4 Jun 2018], stating that the outbreak had been resolved on 12 August 2017. The source of the event was not identified. See event's summary and updated map at http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/temp/reports/en_fup_0000026529_20180604_160029.pdf
Previous to the 2014/15 event which involved all 3 Maghreb countries, the region was reportedly free of FMD since 1999. In May 2012, the 3 countries obtained, through a joint approach, the OIE endorsement of their FMD national official control programs, consistent with the FAO/OIE FMD progressive control pathway (FMD-PCP), which aims at obtaining an FMD-free status, with or without vaccination. Morocco stopped vaccination in 2007, Algeria and Tunisia continued annual vaccinations. Unfortunately, the efforts to attain the FMD-free status were disrupted by the 2014 epizootic.
The deteriorating animal health status in Algeria, reflected by repeated introductions of FMD serotype A and O, is a cause for concern regionally and beyond. Genotyping results of the current strain may be helpful in the detection of the source.
A map of Tizi Ouzou, Algeria: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/12576. - Mods.AS/CRD]