Published Date: 2018-12-08 16:33:50
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Vietnam: (HN) porcine, control
Archive Number: 20181208.6195762
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - VIETNAM: (HANOI) PORCINE, CONTROL
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
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Date: Sat 8 Dec 2018
Source: VNExpress [edited]
A new outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] has been reported among pigs in Hanoi's Ba Vi district. Local reports say 261 pigs belonging to 19 households in 6 communes of the district have been affected by the disease.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development's Department of Animal Health has asked provincial authorities to kill the affected pigs. Local veterinary units have initiated vaccinations of cattle in the area and disinfected the infected farms with chemicals and lime powder in an effort to control the spread of the disease.
The health ministry Friday [7 Dec 2018] reported 6 FMD outbreaks nationwide. All of them were in Ba Vi district, 2.5 hours from downtown Hanoi.
The cattle were not vaccinated against FMD, and this is the main reason for the outbreak, health officials said.
[Byline: Ngoc Nguyen]
ProMED-mail Rapporteur Kunihiko Iizuka
[FMD is endemic in Vietnam, affecting cattle, buffaloes, and, less frequent, pigs. During 2017, 10 new outbreaks were reported to the OIE. According to World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (WRLFMD) data, the serotypes that have been found until recently (February 2018) to be circulating in Vietnam are O (the predominant serotype) and A; see Vietnam's page at http://www.wrlfmd.org/east-and-southeast-asia/vietnam.
FMD outbreaks in pigs may have the potential to spread even when movements of the animals are prevented, since they are regarded prolific FMD virus amplifiers, becoming a source of airborne spread of the virus, which, in certain weather and surface conditions, may reach relatively long distances. This makes early vaccination of susceptible animals, such as cattle, with a matching vaccine essential.
Cattle and buffalo are commonly preventively vaccinated in Vietnam against FMDV serotype O twice annually with varying vaccine formulations, based upon current knowledge of circulating strains. Population-level coverage of vaccination, and thus herd immunity, is regionally variable. Pigs and small ruminants are typically not vaccinated. When outbreaks occur, suppressive vaccination is often deployed to affected and surrounding premises. Additional outbreak response practices include regional restriction of animal movement and slaughter, disinfection of premises, and establishment of temporary quarantine posts for enforcement until 21 days from the last clinical case.
A recent (2017) report (Ref 1) provided basic descriptive characterization of the 1st known incursion of FMDV O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d sublineage into Vietnam. This information is critical for consideration of FMDV surveillance and control programs in Vietnam and neighboring countries.
The O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 lineage has become the predominant strain in the Indian subcontinent since 2008 and has already spread to various countries in Asia and as far westward as the Mediterranean and the Maghreb countries in North Africa.
1. Vu LT, Long NT, Brito B, Stenfeldt C, Phuong NT, Hoang BH, et al.: First detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/Ind-2001d in Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(6): e0177361. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177361.
Hanoi, Vietnam: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/63331]