Published Date: 2019-10-15 18:44:35
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Kenya: (NN) st SAT1, cattle, spread, control
Archive Number: 20191015.6728866
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE - KENYA: (NYANDARUA) SEROTYPE SAT1, CATTLE, SPREAD, CONTROL
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Date: Mon 14 Oct 2019
Source: Standard Media / Mt Kenya Star [edited]
There are fears that farmers may lose hundreds of their dairy cows in the dairy-rich Nyandarua County following an outbreak of foot and mouth disease [FMD] 2 weeks ago, which has already led to the death of 3 cows.
County officials said the disease 1st broke out in Kiriko village, Kanjuiri Ward, where it is estimated that over 200 animals have been infected by type [SAT1] of the viral disease, which has also hit Kanyiriri village in the same ward.
The disease, which is said to be a transboundary infection from the neighbouring Nakuru County, is hitting Nyandarua for the 2nd time in the last 2 months. In August , type O of the disease hit Mirangine and Kinangop Sub-Counties but was noticed in time and quickly contained. There are [in Kenya] 5 types of FMD, including A, O, SAT1 and SAT2 [see comment].
Type O is the most common in Kenya. The disease, which attacks the mouth, feet and sometimes udder, is not a killer disease, but also has no cure. Some types also affect the heart muscles, which is the main cause of death in the affected animals. Nyandarua County CEC for Agriculture, Dr James Karitu, however, has assured the county and the country that there is no cause for alarm, as things have been put under control. "Through surveillance, we have mapped the area and done ring vaccination, where 800 cows have so far been vaccinated," he said.
Experts are on high alert given that type SAT1, which has hit Kanjuiri, resulted in deaths. "The type SAT1 we had there before rarely caused deaths, not the type SAT1 we are seeing now," Nyandarua county director for Veterinary Services, Dr Rose Oyolo, said. Oyolo said that in the last 5 years, there has not been a single case of FMD in Nyandarua, as her department has put in place strategic preventive measures through vaccination timed to prevent infections and control the spread in case of infection. She cited poor farmer turnout during vaccination campaigns, a severe shortage of vaccine, and inadequate allocation of funds for disease control and prevention as obstacles.
Oyolo said vaccination is the main way of preventing FMD, which has affected many parts of the country. But there is a severe shortage of supply from the Kenya Veterinary Vaccine Production Institute [KEVEVAPI], which is the only manufacturer in the country.
The other method which helps to prevent and control FMD is control of animal movement. This, she said, portends a national disaster in case of major outbreak. She said that apart from prevention, which is done strategically ["preventive vaccination"], prompt vaccination ["ring vaccination," "emergency vaccination"] following the outbreak is required.
"But when you don't have a vaccine, which is the main method of preventing the disease, you have the [virus] spreading without control. It can be a disaster. I can say specifically for our case, sometimes we had to sit like lame ducks because the vaccine was not there," she said.
Unlike other livestock diseases including anthrax, lumpy skin disease, and Rift Valley fever among others where there are other manufacturers, KEVEVAPI is the only manufacturer of FMD vaccine in the country, which makes it difficult to avail if orders are not made in time.
Experts say the institute may not be in a position to produce and stock the vaccine because the shelf-life of FMD vaccine is short, hence the need for it to be used as it is produced. Nyandarua orders its stock early and always deposits some money with the institute to ensure priority in case of need.
The farmers, however, do not take their animals for vaccination in time as required. In August , when type O hit Mirangine, farmers in Kanjuiri, which is also in Mirangine Sub-County, did not take their animals for vaccination.
Lack of adequate funding for disease control and prevention in Nyandarua County is also a challenge. It is estimated that Nyandarua has 345 000 animals. At least 70 percent of this animal population, about 220 000 animals, need to be vaccinated against various diseases for the county to be reasonably safe.
This would require about Sh 4 million [USD 425 141] for vaccine alone, yet currently, the department has been allocated only Sh 4 million [USD 38 649] for disease prevention and control.
[According to the Kenya page (http://www.wrlfmd.org/east-africa/kenya) in the web-site of the WRLFMD (World Reference Laboratory, Pirbright, UK), out of the 7 globally known serotypes of the FMD virus (O, A, C, Asia1, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3), the following 5 serotypes have been recorded in Kenya's livestock during the indicated years:
O: 1952-1980, 1982-1984, 1991, 1995, 1998-1999, 2002, 2004-2005, 2007-2011, 2017-2018
A: 1952-1978, 1980, 1984, 1993, 1995-1996, 1998, 2003, 2005-2006, 2008-2009, 2012, 2017
C: 1957-1960, 1962-1968, 1972-1978, 1983, 1992, 1996-1998, 2004
SAT 1: 1971-1972, 1974-1976, 1991, 1998, 2004-2006, 2008-2011, 2013, 2017
SAT 2: 1956-1961, 1966-1967, 1970-1978, 1982, 1984-1989, 1991-1992, 1994-1996, 1998-1999, 2002, 2004-2005, 2007-2009, 2011-2012, 2017
On 12 Nov 2018, the WRL published a report titled "FMD vaccine matching strain differentiation report" for Kenya, based upon tests of the most recent received samples. The matching was tested in relation to 10 reference vaccine strains. The report is available at http://www.wrlfmd.org/sites/world/files/quick_media/WRLFMD-2018-00023-KEN-VMR-O-multiple_001.pdf.
The SAT1 FMD virus strain currently circulating in Nyandarua (map at https://tinyurl.com/y62qevuo) is being claimed, according to the above media report, to manifest exceptionally high pathogenicity. It would be advisable to submit samples for its genotyping to the WRLFMD.
The above media report was also received from Corr.SB. - Mod.AS
HealthMap/ProMED map available at:
Nyandarua, Kenya: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/65217]