Published Date: 2020-04-15 22:54:10
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - India: (MN) cattle
Archive Number: 20200415.7229263
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - INDIA: (MANIPUR) CATTLE
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
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Date: Tue 14 Apr 2020
Source: The Sangai Express [abridged, edited]
The unknown disease that has infected cattle in some areas of Churachandpur district has been confirmed to be foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), stated Veterinary and Animal Husbandry (V&AH) Services Director Dr H Chaoba.
Speaking to the media at his Sanjenthong office today [14 Apr 2020], Dr H Chaoba said that reports were received on 7 and 8 Apr  about an unknown disease striking cattle at Thingkhanphai village of Churachandpur district and surrounding villages.
[Collected] samples were tested in the laboratory; the unknown disease has been confirmed to be FMD, Dr Chaoba said.
Four calves have succumbed to the disease. Infected cattle of Thingkhanphai and surrounding villages have been treated, while uninfected cattle have been vaccinated, he said.
There were also reports about an outbreak of FMD at Maphou Kuki village of Kangpokpi district and surrounding villages. As a team of veterinary officials went to the area, 2 cows were suffering from the disease. Another team of officials had visited Sora, Khangabok, and Moijing in Thoubal district as there were reports about an outbreak of the same disease at these places too, Dr Chaoba said.
FMD is caused by a virus that can be transmitted through air. Generally, FMD cases are more common during spring season, but [the disease] can also infect cattle during winter and summer.
In the past, FMD outbreaks were often extensive, but in the past 3-4 years, the disease was reported from only a few places at a time, Dr Chaoba said.
Calves infected by FMD suffer from fever, sore mouth and tongue, and acute pain in the legs, and they may ultimately succumb to the disease.
Even if FMD [does not] kill mature cattle, infected cows produce little milk, and they become unfit for use in agricultural purposes, said the V&AH services director. The country's total milk productivity is reduced by 30% due to FMD.
Vaccination against FMD is part of the National Animal Diseases Control Programme, which was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 11 Sep 2019. FMD vaccination should be done twice in a year. If any farmer is saying that their cattle are suffering from FMD even after vaccination, the vaccination must have been done only once in a year, or the vaccination was done after the cattle had been already infected, he continued [see comment].
Even though a mass vaccination programme has been suspended presently on account of the lockdown triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, farmers may bring their cattle to Veterinary Hospital, Sanjenthong and other dispensaries for vaccination against FMD, but they must adhere to social distancing norms while coming for vaccination, Dr Chaoba said.
As with all other economic sectors, cattle and poultry farming, too, has been severely affected by the lockdown. Nonetheless, in advisories issued by the central and state governments, V&AH Services is listed among essential services, and transportation/sale of fodder and poultry feeds are permitted during the lockdown, claimed the director.
The directorate of V&AH has already engaged some local agents/firms for delivering fodder and feeds to farmers, either at their home or farms, Dr Chaoba said.
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
[India, where FMD is endemic (serotypes O, A, Asia 1), belongs to FAO's "FMD Pool 2 - South Asia." According to the most recent available FAO/EUFMD monthly global FMD situation report, "During December 2019, FMDV serotype O was detected in 2 cattle samples collected in the state of Karnataka. The ICAR directorate of FMD, Mukteshwar, India, also examined 2490 samples for NSP antibodies that were collected within the FMD National Serosurveillance Programme and 18 670 serum samples to assess the antibody level within the FMD control programme."
The serosurveillance undertaken by ICAR (India's directorate of FMD, Mukteshwar, Nainital, Uttarakhand) is meant to follow and ascertain the full application of the vaccination regime. The level of antibodies reflects the efficacy rate of the vaccine against the virus strains included in the vaccine. It is of importance to serotype and genotype the causative virus strain in order to safeguard the use of matching vaccines.
For the location of Churachandpur district, in India's northeastern state of Manipur bordering Myanmar, see map at https://tinyurl.com/yx5rcml6. - Mod.AS]