Published Date: 2017-04-11 12:23:50
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Algeria (04): (SF) bov, st SAT1, new, OIE, st A geno G-IV
Archive Number: 20170411.4963314
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - ALGERIA (04): (SETIF) BOVINE, SEROTYPE SAT1, NEW STRAIN, OIE, SEROTYPE A GENOTYPE G-IV
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Date: Mon 10 Apr 2017
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly disease information 2017; 30(15) [edited] http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Reviewreport/Review?page_refer=MapFullEventReport&reportid=23512
Foot and mouth disease, Algeria
Information received on [and dated] 10 Apr 2017 from Dr Ahmed Chawky Karim Boughalem, [director of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development], Alger, Algeria
Report type: immediate notification
Date of start of the event: 7 Apr 2017
Date of confirmation of the event: 9 Apr 2017
Reason for notification: new strain of a listed disease in the country
Causal agent: Foot and mouth disease virus
Nature of diagnosis: clinical, laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country.
New outbreaks (1)
Summary of outbreaks:
Total outbreaks: 1
Outbreak 1: Douar Chouaouet, El Eulma, El Eulma, Setif
Date of start of the outbreak: 7 Apr 2017
Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: farm
Total animals affected:
Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered
Cattle / 2 / 2 / 0 / 2 / 0
Affected population: farm with 2 bovines (female veal) that presented the following clinical sings: mouth ulcers and gum erosions.
Outbreak statistics [rates apparent, expressed as percentages]
Species / Morbidity rate / Mortality rate / Case fatality rate / Proportion susceptible animals lost*
Cattle / 100 / 0 / 0 / 100
*Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction, and/or slaughter
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive
Measures applied: movement control inside the country; disinfection/disinfestations; stamping out; official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste; vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists); no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures
Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type / Species / Test / Test date / Result
Central Veterinary Laboratory (national laboratory) / Cattle / real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) / 9 Apr 2017 / Positive
Central Veterinary Laboratory (national laboratory) / Cattle / typing ELISA / 9 Apr 2017 / Positive
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
[The location of the outbreak can be seen on the interactive map included in the OIE report at the source URL above.]
[This is the 1st occurrence of FMD serotype SAT1 in northern Africa; according to the Algeria web page of the WRLFMD (Pirbright), FMD serotype SAT1 has "never" (0000) been reported earlier from this country, nor from Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, or Egypt.
Algeria belongs to FAO/EUFMD's "FMD pool 3" ("West Eurasia & Middle East"), in which the circulating serotypes are O, A, and Asia1. Algeria borders, on its south, "FMD pool 5" ("West/Central Africa") in which serotypes O, A, SAT1, and SAT2 are known to be circulating.
For "MAP 1. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus pools: world distribution by serotype in 2011-2016", showing FAO/EUFMD's 7 pools globally, see http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/eufmd/docs/FMD_monthly_reports/2017/Feb2017.pdf.
Algeria has been recently suffering another emerging FMD outbreak caused by a new virus strain, namely FMDV-A. This event reportedly started on 24 Mar 2017 and is currently present in 3 provinces. Both viruses are affecting cattle in the northern part of the country, along the Mediterranean. They are of grave concern regionally.
Genotyping results of the new Algerian FMDV-A strain have just been published; it has been coined "topotype Africa, lineage G-IV", and is very close (98.3 per cent) to Nigerian strains collected in 2015. The detailed results, including a dendrogram, are available at http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/2017/WRLMEG-2017-00028-Algeria-A-current-v2.pdf.
The FMDV-A genotyping results above and the new FMDV SAT1 event, may be interpreted as an indication of direct or indirect contacts between the livestock populations of Pool-5 countries and of Algeria.
Confirmation of the serological and genotyping results of the new Algerian FMD SAT1 virus by an international reference laboratory are anticipated with interest. FMDV SAT1 is known to have recently been circulating in Nigeria, one of "Pool 5" largest countries. (ref 1). The paper includes, in its discussion chapter, the following comments:
"Although it cannot be excluded that the genetic diversity is a consequence of the high mutation rate of the FMDV [SAT1] genome, these findings are suggestive of a new introduction. The source of this virus introduction is unknown. However, there is an increasing movement and trade with animals from the East and South that could have contact with buffalos. Even though these animals do not come directly to Nigeria there might be intermediate trading steps in countries around Nigeria where SAT1 is circulating unrecognized. It would be highly interesting to define livestock trade patterns and nomad routes in this part of Africa and to combine it with phylogenetics to help understand the spread of FMD as has been carried out for sub-Saharan Africa."
The genotyping results of the Nigerian strain are available at http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/2016/WRLFMD-2016-00034-Nigeria-SAT1-approved.pdf. This introduction of a new virus strain was not notified to the OIE. Nigeria's annual report for 2015 indicated one untyped FMD outbreak, and for 2016, a total of 3 untyped FMD outbreaks.
FMDV serotype SAT1 demonstrated its intercontinental spreading potential in the Near East during the early 1960s. The major event started in Bahrain in December 1961. By February 1962, the disease was extending northwestwards through the Gulf States to reach Iraq, Jordan, Israel, and Syria by April. It then entered the Asiatic regions of Turkey and Iran. In September 1962, it entered the Bosporus to enter Europe for the 1st time and in November 1962 caused an outbreak near the border between Turkey and Greece. It was suspected that the said event originated in eastern Africa. The current event probably started in West/Central Africa.
1. Ehizibolo DO, Haegeman A, DeVleeschauwer AR, et al. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT1 in cattle, Nigeria. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2017; 10:1-8. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12629/epdf (subscription).
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/14116.]