Published Date: 2022-05-08 04:01:49 BST
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Indonesia: (JT) cattle, 1st outbreak, RFI
Archive Number: 20220508.8703115
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - INDONESIA: (JAWA TIMUR) CATTLE, FIRST OUTBREAK, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Fri 6 May 2022
Source: Beef Central [abridged, edited]
A Foot and Mouth Disease [FMD] outbreak has been reported in a provincial city in Indonesia, presenting an alarming escalation in biosecurity threats for the Asia Pacific region and Australia's livestock sector.
The FMD diagnosis has been made by an Indonesian reference laboratory and is yet to be formally confirmed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
Beef Central understands the Indonesian Government is in the process of collecting samples to send to an OIE world reference laboratory in England for formal diagnosis and determination of the exact strain so appropriate vaccines can be ordered.
Details of the reported incursion are laid out in an official East Java Provincial Government incident report and suggest the disease may have been spreading in cattle in and around the city of Surabaya on the large Indonesian island of Java for some weeks.
A translated version of the incident report says provincial officials have identified FMD in 3 different cases involving some hundreds of animals in Surabaya, the 2nd largest city in Indonesia.
The veterinary report states that on Thursday [28 Apr 2022], FMD was identified in 402 beef cattle spread over 5 sub-districts and 22 villages in the Gresik Regency, which takes in the northern and western suburbs of Surabaya.
A 2nd case was reported last Friday [1 May 2022] in Lamongan Regency west of Surabaya involving 102 beef cattle spread over 3 sub-districts and 6 villages and 595 beef cattle, dairy cattle and buffalo spread over 11 sub-districts and 14 villages in the Sidoarjo Regency south of the city.
The 3rd case was reported earlier this week on Tuesday [3 May 2022] in the Mojokerto Regency to the south west of Surabaya and involved as many as 148 beef cattle spread over 9 sub-districts and 19 villages.
At the time of the report yesterday [5 May 2022], the outbreak was noted as affecting 1247 cattle across the 4 regencies, with clinical signs according to FMD disease.
Pictures circulated with the report showed cattle with FMD symptoms.
The reported outbreak has coincided with the Lebaran holiday period during which time large numbers of Indonesian Muslims travel home to their families from around Indonesia and around the world.
It is also a time when significant numbers of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats are transported around Indonesia to be slaughtered for the festivals of Ramadan, which ended at the start of this week, and Lebaran, the main feasting time when relatives return to their family homes.
The timing of the reported outbreak during a period of large annual movements of people and animals is of concern for the potential spread of disease.
News of the reported outbreak should have customs and biosecurity officials in Indonesia and Australia on heightened alert status.
Many Surabaya residents travel to Bali for the Lebaran holiday, and Australian tourists also come and go from the popular tourist centre, presenting another potential pathway for transmission.
Analysis has demonstrated that in Australia a small FMD outbreak, controlled in 3 months, could cost around $AUD 7.1 billion [USD 5.02 billion], while a large 12 month outbreak would cost $AUD 16 billion [USD 11.3 billion].
[Australia's] Federal Department of Agriculture and Water and Environment has contacted industry groups this afternoon [6 May 2022] in an email stating it has received advice that FMD has been confirmed in 4 provinces in Indonesia. It notes that while no official declaration has been made yet, Indonesia is in the process of preparing an emergency declaration and preparing samples for testing at a world reference laboratory in Pirbright, England.
The message from chief veterinary officer Mark Schipp says the department is working to acquire as much information as it can and is engaged with Indonesia and global networks, and urges ongoing vigilance with regard to on-farm biosecurity.
[Byline: James Nason]
[For a map presenting Surabaya, in eastern Java, see <tinyurl.com/2nnx8xcb>.
Indonesia is one of the countries participating in the South-East Asia and China FMD (SEACFMD) Campaign, which aims at controlling and eradicating FMD in South-East Asia, China and Mongolia. Recognising the importance of working with the campaign to maintain its FMD-free status, Indonesia joined the 7 FMD-infected founding countries (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) in 1999. Later, 3 other FMD-free countries in the region joined (Brunei, Philippines and Singapore), as well as the FMD-infected countries China and Mongolia. Notably, on top of the 4 FMD-free countries, Sabah and Sarawak, the eastern part of Malaysia on Borneo Island, has been recognised by the OIE as an FMD-free zone without vaccination since 2003.
SEACFMD's 26th meeting was held virtually (Zoom) on 16-18 Mar 2022. Indonesia's report included the following information:
1. The country is FMD-free without vaccination.
2. Indonesia has a contingency plan for FMD in place.
3. In case of FMD incursion, FMD emergency vaccination will be considered by the Veterinary Services.
4. Even though the stockpile of FMD vaccine is not being considered yet, the Veterinary Services identified the company from where the FMD vaccines could be sourced in compliance with OIE standards to respond to the emergency in the event of FMD incursion. (https://rr-asia.oie.int/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/report-on-implementation-of-fmd-vaccination_oiesrrsea_march2022.pdf).
The most prevalent FMDV serotype in the infected SEACFMD countries is O.
The Cattle Council of Australia has released a statement saying it "has received advice that 1247 cases of FMD have been confirmed in 4 provinces (regencies) of East Java, Indonesia (Gresik, Lamongan, Sidoarjo, Mojokerta).
"We understand that Indonesia is in the process of preparing an Emergency Declaration. Indonesia is also in the process of collecting samples to send to the world reference laboratory in Pirbright, England. This will be necessary to determine the serotype present so that an appropriate vaccine can be ordered.
"Indonesia is our closest neighbour with whom we share an incredibly important bilateral trading partnership. The close proximity of Indonesia has major implications for our biosecurity system and disease-free status.
"Cattle Council urges all members to exercise vigilance on-farm by doing the following:
- Make sure you are aware of the symptoms of Foot and Mouth Disease in Cattle;
- Make sure you know how to report a suspected case of Foot and Mouth Disease;
- Adhering to all traceability obligations, including ensuring all documentation is correctly completed;
- Review your on-farm biosecurity plan."
Australia's last (minor) outbreaks of possible FMD are believed to have occurred in 1801, 1804, 1871 and 1872.
Genotyping of the strain currently circulating in Eastern Java may contribute to the detection of its origin, on top of the required epidemiological investigation and vaccine matching data. Since the disease has already been reported from 4 regencies, a possible unnoticed spread, during a period to be established, deserves to be considered.
WRLFMD (Pirbright) results are anticipated soon. - Mod.AS
Java, Indonesia: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8703115,533]